The Kemencheh - a member of the large Asiatic and north African spike-fiddle group of chordophones , usually consisting of a small, rounded wooden body, the front of which is covered in a membrane such as fish or fine goatskin. There is a long thin neck/fingerboard attached with an integrated pegbox, to house the four steel strings which are tuned in 4th’s; A D G C, low to high. The instrument is held upright, either resting on the leg, lap or on the floor. The bow is usually shorter and often more curved than that of the European violin. The timbre of the Kemencheh is dry, nasal and often compared to that of the human voice. Instruments of similar construction such as the Rebec and Rebab appeared in Europe during the Medieval period through contact with Arab, Turkish and Berber cultures.